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(download the most updated list of the tardigrade taxa)



(the following articles present the most updated taxonomic keys for several tardigrade taxa)



Arthrotardigrada genera: Fontoura, P., Bartels, P. J., Jørgensen, A., Kristensen, R. M., & Hansen, J. G. (2017). A dichotomous key to the genera of the Marine Heterotardigrades (Tardigrada). Zootaxa, 4294(1), 1-45.


Archechiniscus ​species: Bartels, P. J., Fontoura, P., & Nelson, D. R. (2018). Marine tardigrades of the Bahamas with the description of two new species and updated keys to the species of Anisonyches and ArchechiniscusZootaxa4420(1), 43-70.


Batillipes species:Santos E., Rubal M., Veiga P., Rocha C. & Fontoura P. (2018). Batillipes (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) from the Portuguese coast with the description of two new species and a new dichotomous key for all species. European Journal of Taxonomy, (425), 1-32.


Coronarctus species: Gomes-Júnior, E., Santos, É., da Rocha, C. M., Santos, P. J., & Fontoura, P. (2020). The deep-sea genus Coronarctus (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) in Brazil, south-western Atlantic Ocean, with the description of three new species. Diversity, 12(2), 63.


Megastygarctides species: Ürkmez, D., Ostrowska, M., Roszkowska, M., Gawlak, M., Zawierucha, K., Kristensen, R. M., & Kaczmarek, Ł. (2018). Description of Megastygarctides sezginii sp. nov.(Tardigrada: Arthrotardigrada: Stygarctidae) from the Turkish Black Sea coast and a key to the genus Megastygarctides. Marine Biology Research, 14(1), 1-16.


Angursa species: Fujimoto, S., & Hansen, J. G. (2019). Revision of Angursa (Arthrotardigrada: Styraconyxidae) with the description of a new species from Japan. European Journal of Taxonomy, (510).


Tanarctus species: Fujimoto, S., Miyazaki, K., & Suzuki, A. C. (2013). A new marine tardigrade, Tanarctus diplocerus (Arthrotardigrada: Halechiniscidae) from Japan. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 93(4), 955-961.



Echiniscoididae: Gąsiorek, P. & Kristensen R. M. (2022). New marine heterotardigrades lineages from the tropics. The European Zoological Journal. 89:1, 719-754.

Anisonyches species: Bartels, P. J., Fontoura, P., & Nelson, D. R. (2018). Marine tardigrades of the Bahamas with the description of two new species and updated keys to the species of Anisonyches and ArchechiniscusZootaxa, 4420(1), 43-70.


Bryodelphax species: Fontoura, P., Pilato, G., & Lisi, O. (2008). Echiniscidae (Tardigrada, Heterotardigrada) from Faial and Pico Islands, the Azores, with the description of two new species. Zootaxa, 1693, 49-61.

Cornechiniscus species: Gąsiorek, P. & Michalczyk, Ł. (2020). Revised Cornechiniscus (Heterotardigrada) and new phylogenetic analyses negate echiniscid subfamilies and tribes. Royal Society Open Science, 7: 200581.

Echiniscus bigranulatus group: Michalczyk, L. & Kaczmarek, L. (2007).  Echiniscus ganczareki, a new species of Tardigrada (Heterotardigrada: Echiniscidae, bigranulatus group) from Costa Rica.  Zootaxa, 1471, 15–25.

Mopsechiniscus species: Dastych, H. (2001).  Notes on the Revision of the Genus Mopsechiniscus (Tardigrada).  Zoologisher Anzeiger, 240, 299–308.

Hypechiniscus species: Gasiorek et al. (2021). New Asian and Nearctic Hypechiniscus species (Heterotardigrada: Echiniscidae) signalize a pseudocryptic horn of plenty. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 192, 794-852.


Eutardigrada genera: Pilato, G., & Binda, M. G. (2010). Definition of families, subfamilies, genera and subgenera of the Eutardigrada, and keys to their identification. Zootaxa, 2404, 1-54.

Eutardigrada genera: Nelson, D. R., Guidetti, R., & Rebecchi, L. (2015). Phylum Tardigrada. In Thorp, J. H., & Covich, A. P. (Eds.). Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. Academic press.pp. 347-380.

Eutardigrada genera: Bingemer, J., & Hohberg, K. (2017). An illustrated identification key to the eutardigrade species (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada) presently known from European soils. Soil Organisms 89(3): 127-149.


Milnesium species: Morek, W., Gąsiorek, P., Stec, D., Blagden, B. & Michalczyk, Ł. (2016). Experimental taxonomy exposes ontogenetic variability and elucidates the taxonomic value of claw configuration in Milnesium Doyère, 1840 (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada: Apochela). Contributions to Zoology, 85(2): 173-200.

Milnesium species of the granulatum group: Morek, W., Wałach, K.,  & Michalczyk, Ł. (2022) Rough backs: taxonomic value of epicuticular sculpturing in the genus Milnesium Doyère, 1840 (Tardigrada: Apochela), Scientific Reports 12: 9857.



Bertolanius species: Hansen, J. G., Kristensen, R. M., Bertolani, R., & Guidetti, R. (2017). Comparative analyses of Bertolanius species (Eohypsibiidae; Eutardigrada) with the description of Bertolanius birnae sp. nov. from northern polar regions. Polar Biology, 40(1), 123-140.


Diphascon species of pingue group: Fontoura, P., & Pilato, G. (2007). Diphascon (Diphascon) faialense sp. nov. a new species of Tardigrada (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae) from Azores and a key to the species of the D. pingue group. Zootaxa, 1589(4).

Hypsibius species of the dujardini group: Gąsiorek, P., Stec, D., Morek, W., & Michalczyk, Ł. (2018). An integrative redescription of Hypsibius dujardini (Doyère, 1840), the nominal taxon for Hypsibioidea (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada). Zootaxa, 4415(1), 45-75.


Itaquasconinae genera: Gąsiorek, P., & Michalczyk, Ł. (2020). Phylogeny of Itaquasconinae in the light of the evolution of the flexible pharyngeal tube in Tardigrada. Zoologica Scripta, 49(4), 499-515.


Ramazzottius species: Biserov, V. I. (1998). Tardigrades of the Caucasus with a taxonomic analysis of the genus Ramazzottius (Parachela: Hypsibiidae). Zoologisher Anzeiger, 236(1997), 139-159.


Calohypsibius species: Michalczyk, L., & Kaczmarek, L. (2005). The first record of the genus Calohypsibius Thulin, 1928 (Eutardigrada: Calohypsibiidae) from Chile (South America) with a description of a new species Calohypsibius maliki. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 32(4), 287-292.


Isohypsibioidea: Gąsiorek, P., Stec, D., Morek, W., & Michalczyk, Ł. (2019). Deceptive conservatism of claws: distinct phyletic lineages concealed within Isohypsibioidea (Eutardigrada) revealed by molecular and morphological evidence. Contributions to Zoology, 88(1), 78-132.


Doryphoribius species: Pérez-Pech, W. A., Anguas-Escalante, A. B. R. I. L., Cutz-Pool, L. Q., & Guidetti, R. (2017). Doryphoribius chetumalensis sp. nov.(Eutardigrada: Isohypsibiidae) a new tardigrade species discovered in an unusual habitat of urban areas of Mexico. Zootaxa, 4344(2), 345-356.

Pseudobiotus species: Chang, Kaczmarek, Lee, Michalczyk (2007).  Pseudobiotus spinifer, a New Tardigrade Species (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae) from Nakdong River, South Korea, with a Redescription of P. vladimiri Biserov, Dudichev & Biserova.  Zoological Science 24: 623–629.

Thulinius species: Kaczmarek, Bertolani, Nedzynska-Stygar (2010).  Thulinius saltursus comb. nov.: a new systematic position for Isohypsibius  saltursus Schuster, Toftner & Grigarick, 1978 (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae) and a key for the genus ThuliniusZootaxa 2483: 58–64.


Calcarobiotus species: Kaczmarek, Ł., Michalczyk, Ł., & Guidetti, R. (2006). Description of the new species Calcarobiotus (C.) longinoi sp. nov.(Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae) from Costa Rica with the diagnostic key to the genus CalcarobiotusItalian Journal of Zoology, 73(3), 247-253.

Diaforobiotus species: Stec, D. (2023). Integrative taxonomy helps to revise systematics and questions the purported cosmopolitan nature of the type species within the genus Diaforobiotus (Eutardigrada: Richtersiusidae). Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 23(2), 309-328.

Macrobiotus species of hufelandi group: Kaczmarek, Ł., & Michalczyk, Ł. (2017). The Macrobiotus hufelandi group (Tardigrada) revisited. Zootaxa, 4363(1), 101.

Macrobiotus species of pseudohufelandi complex / Xerobiotus species: Vecchi et al. 2022. Macrobiotus naginae sp. nov., a new xerophilous tardigrade species from Rokua Sand Dunes (Finland). Zoological Studies 61:22. https://doi:10.6620/ZS.2022.61-22

Mesobiotus species. Stec, D. (2022). An Integrative Description of Two New Mesobiotus Species (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae) with Updated Genus Phylogeny. Zoological Studies, 61.

Minibiotus species: Claxton, S. K. (1998). A revision of the genus Minibiotus (Tardigrada: Macrobiotidae) with descriptions of eleven new species from Australia. Records-Australian Museum, 50: 125-160.

Minibiotus species of sidereus group: Dueñas-Cedillo et al (2021). Species-Specific Cuticular Phenotypes in Eutardigrada: A Morphometric Approach to Analyze the Variation of Star-Shaped Pores in Minibiotus Species. Diversity, 13, 307.

Paramacrobiotus speces: Kaczmarek, Ł., Gawlak, M., Bartels, P. J., Nelson, D. R., & Roszkowska, M (2017). Revision of the genus Paramacrobiotus Guidetti et al., 2009 with the description of a new species, re-descriptions and a key. Annales Zoologici 67(4): 627-656.


Murrayidae genera: Guidetti, R., Giovannini, I., Del Papa, V., Ekrem, T., Nelson, D. R., Rebecchi, L., & Cesari, M. (2022). Phylogeny of the asexual lineage Murrayidae (Macrobiotoidea, Eutardigrada) with the description of Paramurrayon gen. nov. and Paramurrayon meieri sp. nov. Invertebrate Systematics, 36(12), 1099-1117.

Murrayon species: Guidetti, R., Giovannini, I., Del Papa, V., Ekrem, T., Nelson, D. R., Rebecchi, L., & Cesari, M. (2022). Phylogeny of the asexual lineage Murrayidae (Macrobiotoidea, Eutardigrada) with the description of Paramurrayon gen. nov. and Paramurrayon meieri sp. nov. Invertebrate Systematics, 36(12), 1099-1117.

Paramurrayon species: Guidetti, R., Giovannini, I., Del Papa, V., Ekrem, T., Nelson, D. R., Rebecchi, L., & Cesari, M. (2022). Phylogeny of the asexual lineage Murrayidae (Macrobiotoidea, Eutardigrada) with the description of Paramurrayon gen. nov. and Paramurrayon meieri sp. nov. Invertebrate Systematics, 36(12), 1099-1117.

Dactylobiotus species Kaczmarek, Ł., Schabetsberger, R., Litwin, M., & Michalczyk, Ł. (2012). A new freshwater eutardigrade from Fiji and Vanuatu (Oceania), with remarks on the genus Dactylobiotus. New Zealand Journal of Zoology39(4), 311-318.


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